Shah Marai/AFP/Getty Images

مسار أفغانستان نحو الاعتماد على ذاتها

كابول -      يعد مؤتمر بروكسل حول أفغانستان هذا الأسبوع فرصة مهمة لوضع خارطة طريق لمستقبل الدولة. وفي حين نرى المسار الحالي لأفغانستان قد أدى إلى شيء من التقدم، إلا أنها ما زالت بعيدة جدا عن المسار الأقرب للازدهار –لأسباب على رأسها سوء توزيع المساعدات والحكم المحلي.

منذ انتخاب الرئيس أشرف غني عام 2014، انخفض تدفق المساعدات المقدمة إلى أفغانستان انخفاضًا حادًا، ولم تؤدي المساعدات التي تلقتها أفغانستان إلى تعزيز بناء الدولة بشكل حقيقي، وذلك في الوقت الذي يتخطى فيه المانحون الدوليون الحكومة الأفغانية من أجل تمويل المشروعات المنفصلة القائمة بذاتها، ولقد ظهر ذلك في الفترة من 2002 حتى 2010 حيث تم صرف 82% من المساعدات المقدمة إلى أفغانستان والتي بلغت 56 مليار دولار أمريكي من خلال مؤسسات غير حكومية.

وهناك بعض التبرير لهذا النهج، ذلك أن المانحين كانوا يعتقدون أن الدولة الأفغانية كانت ضعيفة ويتخلل مفاصلها الفساد لدرجة لا يسمح لها باستخدام هذه الأموال بشكل فعال، والحق أنهم لم يكونوا مخطئين في ذلك فلقد باتت المحسوبية والفساد مستشريين في أفغانستان.

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