Promesas incumplidas

PRINCETON – En 2000, los dirigentes del mundo se reunieron en Nueva York e hicieron pública una resonante Declaración del Milenio, en la que se prometía reducir a la mitad la proporción de personas que padecen pobreza extrema y hambre en 2015. También prometieron reducir a la mitad la proporción de personas que carecen de agua potable y saneamiento, avanzar hacia la escolarización primaria completa y universal de los niños y las niñas de todos los países, reducir en dos terceras partes la mortalidad infantil y en tres cuartas partes la mortalidad materna y luchar contra el VIH/SIDA, el paludismo y otras enfermedades importantes. Esas promesas, reformuladas como objetivos concretos y mensurables, pasaron a ser los objetivos de desarrollo del Milenio (ODM).

El mes pasado, diez años después de aquella reunión, los dirigentes del mundo volvieron a Nueva York para celebrar una cumbre de las Naciones Unidas que aprobó un documento titulado Mantener la promesa, en el que se reafirmó el compromiso de alcanzar dichos objetivos de aquí a 2015. El comunicado de prensa de las NN.UU. llamó el documento “plan de acción mundial” para lograr los ODM, pero más que un plan es una expresión de aspiraciones. ¿Qué posibilidades tenemos de mantener las promesas hechas en 2000?

Como ha señalado el filósofo de Yale Thomas Pogge, se ha vuelto más fácil la tarea reduciendo los objetivos. Incluso antes de 2000, la Cumbre Mundial sobre la Alimentación, celebrada en Roma en 1996, prometió reducir a la mitad el número de personas desnutridas en 2015, a más tardar. En cambio, el ODM correspondiente fue el de reducir a la mitad la proporción de quienes padecen hambre en el mundo (además de quienes viven en la pobreza extrema). Como la población del mundo está aumentando, reducir a la mitad la proporción de personas que padecen hambre (y pobreza extrema) significa que no se reducirá su número a la mitad.

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