Sortir de la pauvreté grâce au numérique

COPENHAGUE – Quels sont les domaines qui devront faire l’objet d’une attention particulière de la part de la communauté internationale dans les 15 prochaines années ? La santé, la nutrition et l’éducation semblent être des choix évidents ; de manière plus surprenante, faire une priorité de l’accès au haut débit est étayé par des arguments solides.

Considérons ce simple fait : multiplier par trois l’accès mobile à internet au cours des 15 prochaines années pourrait augmenter les revenus des pays en développement de 22.000 milliards de dollars. Une telle amélioration de la vie et du revenu potentiel des pauvres pourrait indirectement contribuer à relever d’autres défis ; après tout, les individus plus prospères tendent à être en meilleure santé, à être mieux nourris et mieux éduqués.

Ce débat est important dans la perspective de la réunion de 193 gouvernements nationaux en septembre aux Nations unies pour finaliser la liste des objectifs de développement à l’horizon 2030. Le groupe de réflexion que j’ai fondé, le Consensus de Copenhague, a demandé à 60 équipes d’économistes, dont plusieurs prix Nobel, d’évaluer les objectifs susceptibles d’être les plus efficaces pour chaque dollar dépensé, afin d’aider la réunion mondiale à faire les meilleurs choix possibles.

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