让中国加入应对气候变化的行列

波兹南—现今的经济危机给本月在波兰举行的气候变化谈判蒙上了一层阴影。当谈判者希望能够就达成国际气候协议取得具体进展时,世界上两个最大的污染排放国则不够专心—美国在操心防止总统换届期间发生金融体系的崩溃,中国在关注国内投资的下滑和国外对其制造产品的需求减少。在美国的房屋价格和退休储蓄下降而中国的失业人数上升之时,观察家们担心无论美国还是中国都不太愿意削减它们的排放。

这里的矛盾之处在于这场危机向中美两国展示了一个达成协议的特殊机会。这个协议将为达成全球性的气候协议奠定基础。实际上,最近美中之间一年两度的战略经济对话(在气候会议开始的前一周已经举行)的主要目标之一就是开始在“十年能源和环境合作框架”下进行工作,这一框架是本年早些时候建立起来的。

在双边采取主动之前,有整整十年美国避免参与国际间处理气候变化的尝试,担心如果它采取了行动而中国按兵不动,世界就无法实现减排目标,美国的工业也会陷于不利之境。中国则反击说它的历史和人均排放量都远远低于美国水平;就算把国家的总排放水平和美国拉平,旧金山的人均碳预算也比上海高出五倍。

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