brics leaders Li Xueren/ZumaPress

China y su equilibrismo en los BRICS

PEKÍN – Mientras gran parte del mundo se centra en las tribulaciones griegas, los BRICS –Brasil, Rusia, India, China y Sudáfrica– han estado trabajando para promover su propia agenda económica; últimamente, en su séptima cumbre anual en la ciudad siberiana de Ufa. Si bien Rusia fue la anfitriona de la reunión, se percibió a China como dominante en la agrupación. De hecho, los BRICS ya han demostrado ser un multiplicador de fuerzas para la diplomacia china, que puede mantener esa función si China se cuida de imponer demasiado sus intereses nacionales.

Hasta el momento, China ha desempeñado un papel crucial para impulsar los avances hacia una cooperación real entre los BRICS. En las últimas semanas, cada uno de sus miembros ha comprometido 10 mil millones de USD para su Nuevo Banco de Desarrollo, que debiera comenzar a otorgar préstamos el próximo año; presentaron una estrategia común de cooperación económica y comercial, y acordaron un fondo de reserva de 100 mil millones de USD para proporcionar asistencia temporal a los miembros que enfrenten presiones en sus balances de pagos.

Pero el futuro de los BRICS continúa siendo incierto debido a intensos reveses económicos: Brasil se ve atormentado por escándalos de corrupción y el estancamiento de su producto; Rusia probablemente esté en recesión, debido en gran medida a las sanciones impuestas por Occidente como respuesta a su intervención en Ucrania; India ha estado sufriendo la depreciación de su moneda y un vertiginoso aumento de su deuda pública; el PBI chino solo creció el 7,4 % el año pasado, la menor tasa en 24 años; y el crecimiento de Sudáfrica ha sido débil, especialmente por problemas energéticos.

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