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L'illusion des BRICS

MADRID – La récente dégradation de la note de crédit du Brésil, abaissée au statut dit « à haut risque », a été suivie d'un déferlement d'articles annonçant l'effondrement des BRICS (Brésil, Russie, Inde, Chine et Afrique du Sud). Rien de surprenant à cela : le plaisir malsain du malheur d'autrui resurgit quasi-systématiquement lorsque de mauvaises nouvelles viennent concerner les BRICS, dont les membres étaient autrefois salués comme les futures grandes puissances économiques et politiques de la planète. 

Il faut ici percevoir un phénomène plus profond. L'apparente obsession du monde autour de ce qu'il considère comme la grandeur et décadence des BRICS reflète le désir d'identification d'un pays ou groupe d'États voué à prendre le dessus sur les États-Unis en tant que leader planétaire. Or, dans sa recherche de la « grande puissance de demain », le monde néglige une réalité dans laquelle l'Amérique demeure à ce jour la seule puissance capable d'endosser le leadership mondial, et de garantir un semblant d'ordre international.

L'histoire des BRICS est bien connue. Elle débute en 2001 autour d'un regroupement purement technique, lorsque l'économiste britannique Jim O’Neill décide d'associer les pays concernés (Afrique du Sud exclue) et de leur conférer une appellation accrocheuse, au seul motif que ces États présentent tous une envergure certaine et une économie émergente à croissance rapide. Entrevoyant la possibilité de transcrire leur puissance économique en influence politique, les BRICS organisent toutefois leur première réunion informelle en 2006, et le premier sommet de leurs dirigeants en 2009.

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