Die Brexit-Revolte

LONDON – Mit der Entscheidung, die Europäische Union zu verlassen, hat Großbritannien eine ungeheure Revolution inszeniert, die das europäische Projekt erschüttern – und möglicherweise sogar zerstören – wird. Nun, da das Vereinigte Königreich sein außergewöhnliches Experiment in Sachen angewandter Demokratie fortsetzt, werden zweifellos auch in anderen Teilen Europas – insbesondere in nördlichen Ländern wie Dänemark, Finnland, den Niederlanden und Schweden – Forderungen erhoben, dem britischen Beispiel zu folgen. Es stellt sich jedoch die Frage, wogegen die Austrittswilligen eigentlich revoltieren. 

Die EU wurde im Gefolge des Zweiten Weltkriegs aufgebaut, um Europas jahrhundertelanges Vermächtnis gewalttätiger Konflikte endlich zu überwinden. Nach zwei brutalen Kriegen, in denen die Schaffung sowie die konkurrierenden Ambitionen von Nationalstaaten eine zentrale Rolle spielten, setzen die Europäer auf den Internationalismus als Grundlage einer neuen politischen Ordnung, die es unter allen Umständen zu schützen galt.

Zu diesem Zweck war es von entscheidender Bedeutung, supranationale Einrichtungen zu schaffen, die die Europäer aneinander banden und den einzelnen Ländern im Namen der Integration Beschränkungen auferlegten. Europäische Gerichtshöfe bekamen die Verantwortung für den Schutz der Rechtsstaatlichkeit übertragen und neue Institutionen wie die Europäische Zentralbank übten zunehmend Kontrolle über die Wirtschaft aus.

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