La révolte du Brexit

LONDRES – Par son vote en faveur d’une sortie de l’Union européenne, le Royaume-Uni a manifesté sa révolte avec une telle force qu’elle va secouer – et pourrait même détruire – tout le projet européen. Et tandis que les Britanniques poursuivront dans la voie ouverte par cette extraordinaire expérience de démocratie appliquée, il ne fait guère de doute que retentiront ailleurs en Europe – essentiellement dans les pays du Nord, au Danemark, en Finlande, aux Pays-Bas et en Suède – des appels à suivre leur exemple. Mais contre quoi se révoltent ceux qui veulent quitter l’Union ?

L’UE s’est construite, au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, afin que l’Europe puisse échapper à ses démons : de longs siècles de violences et de conflits. Après deux guerres terribles, où la création d’États-nations aux ambitions rivales avaient joué un rôle déterminant, les Européens choisirent de fonder sur l’internationalisme un nouvel ordre politique, qui devait être protégé, quel qu’en soit le prix.

À cette fin, il était indispensable de construire des organismes supranationaux qui puissent relier les uns aux autres les Européens et, au nom de l’intégration, imposer à chaque pays des limites. La protection de l’état de droit revint aux cours de justice européennes et de nouvelles institutions, comme la Banque centrale européenne, affirmèrent et affermirent leur contrôle sur l’économie.  

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