British protests Ian Forsyth/Getty Images

Friedrich Nietzsche et le référendum britannique

CAMBRIDGE – Attaques terroristes ; tensions à l’égard des minorités ethniques et religieuses ; regain de popularité des partis extrémistes ; exacerbation des divisions Nord-Sud ; puissance politique de la chancelière allemande, agressivité de la Russie qui cherche à étendre son emprise territoriale ; perplexité du Royaume-Uni, engagé sur de lointains théâtres d’opération et qui hésite à se dégager d’Europe continentale ; ordre politique encore jeune, né d’une série de guerres dévastatrices, menacé d’implosion…

La liste des problèmes auxquels l’Europe est aujourd’hui confrontée semble interminable. Mais ces questions ne sont pas nouvelles. À plus d’un titre, la situation actuelle est comparable à celle que connaissait l’Allemagne du chancelier Otto von Bismarck. C’en est frappant.

On craignait en ce temps-là que les minorités catholiques du Sud ne sapent l’unité du nouvel empire germanique, censé apporter la stabilité que menaçait l’essor du socialisme révolutionnaire, après une succession de guerres sanglantes (la dernière en date avait mis aux prises la Prusse et la France) et plusieurs tentatives d’assassinat contre le Kaiser lui-même. L’Allemagne était prise en étau, entre une Russie impérialiste et une France qui voulait sa revanche. Tandis que la Grande-Bretagne s’embourbait dans ses aventures militaires en Asie et au Moyen-Orient.

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