Boris Johnson Ben Pruchnie/Getty Images

El ascenso de la democracia demótica en Europa

LONDRES – Aún queda por asimilar la conmoción causada por la votación británica a favor de salir de la Unión Europea. No obstante, los líderes europeos deben acorazarse frente a lo que está por venir. De hecho, el brexit podría ser el temblor inicial que desencadene un tsunami de referéndums en Europa durante los próximos años.

A lo largo de toda Europa, hay 47 partidos políticos insurgentes que hacen que la política se pare de cabeza. Ellos están ganando el control de la agenda política, dándole forma según sus intereses – y ganan poder en el proceso. En un tercio de los Estados miembros de la UE, tales partidos son miembros de los gobiernos de coalición, y su éxito ha impulsado a los partidos tradicionales a adoptar algunas de sus posiciones.

A pesar de estos partidos tienen raíces muy diferentes, todos ellos tienen un aspecto en común: todos están tratando de provocar un vuelco en el consenso sobre política exterior que ha definido a Europa desde hace varias décadas. Son euroescépticos; desdeñan a la OTAN; quieren cerrar sus fronteras y detener el libre comercio. Ellos están cambiando la cara de la política, sustituyendo las batallas tradicionales entre izquierda y derecha con enfrentamientos entre su propio nativismo enojado contra el cosmopolitismo de las élites que desprecian.

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