Boris Johnson Ben Pruchnie/Getty Images

Der Aufstieg der demotischen Demokratie in Europa

LONDON – Der Schock über die britische Entscheidung, die Europäische Union zu verlassen, muss erst noch verdaut werden. Doch die europäische Spitzenpolitik muss sich für kommende Ereignisse wappnen. Tatsächlich könnte der Brexit ein Vorbeben sein, das in den kommenden Jahren in Europa einen Tsunami an Volksabstimmungen auslöst.

In ganz Europa gibt es 47 Parteien, die in aufrührerischer Manier die Politik auf den Kopf stellen. Sie erlangen die Kontrolle über die politische Agenda, gestalten sie nach ihren Vorstellungen – und gewinnen im Laufe dieses Prozess an Macht. In einem Drittel der EU-Mitgliedsländer befinden sich derartige Parteien in Koalitionsregierungen und ihr Erfolg spornt die etablierten Parteien an, manche dieser Positionen zu übernehmen.

Obwohl diese neuen Parteien durchaus unterschiedliche Wurzeln aufweisen, ist ihnen eines gemeinsam: sie alle versuchen, den außenpolitischen Konsens, der Europa über Jahrzehnte definierte, auszuhebeln. Sie sind Euro-Skeptiker; sie lehnen die NATO ab; sie wollen die Grenzen schließen und den Freihandel beenden. Sie verändern das Gesicht der Politik. An die Stelle traditioneller Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Links und Rechts tritt der Schlagabtausch zwischen ihrem eigenen zornigen Nativismus und dem Kosmopolitismus der Eliten, die sie verachten.

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