Die Zerschlagung des neoklassischen Monopols in der Ökonomielehre

Über 25 Jahre hat der so genannte „Washington-Konsens“ – Maßnahmen, die darauf abzielen, die Rolle des Marktes auszuweiten und die des Staates einzuschränken – die Entwicklungspolitik beherrscht. John Williamson, der den Begriff „Washington-Konsens“ prägte, bezeichnete diese Maßnahmen im Jahr 2002 als „derartige Selbstverständlichkeiten, dass man sich auch auf einen Konsens einigen konnte.“

Damit ist es nun vorbei. Dani Rodrik, renommierter Ökonom der Universität Harvard, hat jüngst in seinem beeindruckenden neuen Buch One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth die intellektuellen Grundlagen des Washington-Konsens infrage gestellt. Rodriks These besagt, dass es zwar nur eine Ökonomielehre gibt, aber viele Wege, die in der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung zum Erfolg führen. 

Mit seiner unumwundenen Behauptung, es gebe nur „eine Ökonomielehre“ hat uns Rodrik einen großen Dienst erwiesen. Irgendeinen Kritiker, der behaupten würde, die Ökonomie lasse nur einen theoretischen Ansatz zu, würde man als paranoid bezeichnen. Rodriks Reputation hingegen eröffnet die Chance für eine Debatte, die andernfalls unmöglich wäre.

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