En finir avec le monopole des néoclassiques en économie

Ces 25 dernières années, le “Consensus de Washington,” qui comprend des mesures visant à étendre le rôle des marchés et à restreindre celui de l’État, a dominé les politiques de développement économique. Comme l’a dit John Williamson, inventeur de cette expression, en 2002, ces mesures “sont des principes de base, raison pour laquelle elles nécessitaient un consensus.”

Ce n’est plus le cas. Dani Rodrik, économiste renommé de l’université d’Harvard, est le dernier en date à mettre en doute les fondements intellectuels du Consensus dans un nouvel ouvrage convaincant, intitulé One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth . La thèse de Rodri est que bien qu’il n’y ait qu’une économie unique, il existe de nombreuses recettes pour assurer le succès du développement.

Rodrik a rendu un grand service en formulant si ouvertement la thèse “d’économie unique.” Si un autre critique avait prétendu que l’économie ne permet qu’une seule approche théorique, il se serait vu taxer de paranoïa et aurait été ignoré, alors que la position de Rodrik permet de faire naître un débat qui n’aurait pas été possible autrement.

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