打破经济学的新古典主义垄断

25年来,所谓的“华盛顿共识”——其中包含着旨在扩大市场和限制国家作用的各项措施——已经占据了经济发展政策的主导地位。正如发明这一词汇的约翰•威廉姆森(John Williamson)在2002年所指出的那样,这些措施“是十全十美,万无一失的,因此我们才有必要就此达成共识。”

情况已经发生了变化。著名的哈佛大学经济学家丹尼·罗德里克(Dani Rodrik)是在新书 《同样的经济,不同的处方:全球化、制度和经济发展》 中有力挑战“华盛顿共识”学术基础的最近一人。罗德里克的命题是尽管我们只有一个经济学,但通向发展成功的道路却不只一条。

罗德里克公开提出“一个经济学”的说法称得起是一项重大的成就。提出发展只有一种理论方法的经济学家会被当作偏执狂一样不屑一顾,而罗德里克的立场却创造了讨论的机会,如果没有他的贡献,这种机会本来是不可能存在的。

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