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Терапия МВФ для Бразилии

МОНТЕВИДЕО – Экономика Бразилии оказалась в реанимации. А нарастающий политический кризис – начата процедура импичмента президента Дилмы Русеф за предполагаемые незаконные бухгалтерские махинации с целью скрыть размер дефицита бюджета – вызывает серьёзные вопросы по поводу того, кто же сможет обеспечить необходимое стране лечение.

Положение действительно серьёзное. Производство сокращается, доходы бюджета пошатнулись, а бюджетный дефицит уже превышает 9% ВВП. Инфляция преодолела двузначную отметку, вынудив центральный банк повысить процентные ставки – решение, не способствующее устойчивости экономики на фоне углубляющейся рецессии и увеличивающейся стоимости обслуживания быстро растущего бразильского долга.

На фоне быстрого снижения кредитоспособности Бразилии процентные спреды по её долгам приближаются к аргентинскому уровню. Объемы валютных резервов – $370 млрд – ещё недавно казались незыблемыми, а теперь всё больше выглядят слабыми. За вычетом номинальной стоимости валютных свопов ($115 млрд) доля краткосрочных долгов государства (как внешних, так и внутренних), покрываемых валютными резервами, оказывается ниже критически важного порога в 100%.

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