El desgobierno del derecho internacional

NUEVA DELHI – Si nos guiamos por las apariencias, la reciente creación de una zona de identificación para la defensa aérea (ZIDA) china, que incluye territorios ajenos al control de ese país, no tiene nada en común con el arresto y el cacheo al desnudo de una diplomática india en Nueva York por la supuesta remuneración insuficiente a una empleada doméstica que había llevado consigo desde India. De hecho, estos episodios personifican el enfoque unilateralista de ambas potencias respecto del derecho internacional.

La promoción de un orden global justo y basado en reglas por parte de los estados poderosos, como un componente esencial para la paz y la seguridad, tiene larga data. Sin embargo, las principales potencias tradicionalmente han desacatado el derecho internacional, al tiempo que lo emplean contra otros estados. La Liga de las Naciones fracasó porque no pudo castigar ni evitar ese tipo de comportamiento. Actualmente, Estados Unidos y China son ejemplos patentes de un enfoque unilateralista de las relaciones internacionales, aun cuando sostienen su apoyo al fortalecimiento de las reglas y las instituciones globales.

Pensemos en EE. UU., que se ha rehusado a firmar tratados internacionales clave, como la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar (CONVEMAR) de 1982, la Convención de la ONU sobre los Usos de los Cursos de Agua Internacionales para Fines Distintos de la Navegación de 1997 (que aún no ha sido puesta en vigor) y el Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional de 1998. De hecho, el unilateralismo continúa siendo el leitmotiv de la política exterior estadounidense y esto se refleja también en sus intervenciones internacionales, sean de lucha y vigilancia informática, ataques con aviones a control remoto, o esfuerzos para cambiar regímenes.

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