Borlaug et les banquiers

NEW YORK – Récemment, la mort de Norman Borlaug nous a donné à réfléchir sur les valeurs fondamentales et sur notre système économique. Borlaug a reçu le prix Nobel de la paix pour ses travaux de « révolution verte » qui ont sauvé des millions de personnes de la famine et modifié le paysage économique mondial.

Avant Borlaug, la menace d’un cauchemar malthusien planait sur le monde : la croissance des populations dans le monde en développement et l'insuffisance de denrées alimentaires. Pensez au traumatisme qu'aurait pu subir un pays comme l’Inde si sa population d'un demi milliard de personnes était restée au même niveau de faibles ressources alimentaires alors même qu'elle doublait. Avant la révolution verte, l'économiste nobélisé Gunnar Myrdal prédisait un avenir sombre à une Asie embourbée dans la pauvreté. Au lieu de cela, l’Asie est devenue une grande puissance économique.

De la même manière, la nouvelle détermination encourageante de l'Afrique à lutter contre la famine devait servir de testament vivant à Borlaug. Le fait que la révolution verte ne soit jamais parvenue jusqu'au continent le plus pauvre du monde, où la productivité agricole représente juste un tiers du niveau atteint en Asie, montre qu'il y a encore une grande marge d'amélioration.

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