Paul Lachine

Приватизация выделяемой в целях развития помощи

ЛОНДОН – За последние 50 лет очень многое изменилось в сфере официальной помощи в целях развития (ОПР). С тех пор как она возникла во времена холодной войны, когда члены Комитета содействия развитию ОЭСР ежегодно тратили приблизительно 60 миллиардов долларов США (сумму, которую также выделял Советский Союз), страны получатели назывались «отсталыми», «развивающимися», «южными» и, в последнее время, «с нарождающимся рынком».

На самом деле, признаки, определяющие страны-получатели, в последние годы все чаще ставятся под вопрос. В Соединенном Королевстве идут дебаты о том, стоит ли прекратить помощь Индии, третьему по величине получателю потоков капитала и стране, где расположен крупнейший британский работодатель в сфере производства ‑ компания Tata Group. Аналогично, страны еврозоны ищут способы, чтобы давний получатель помощи Китай, который на данный момент держит у себя 2,5 триллиона долларов государственного долга США, помог им преодолеть их долговой кризис.

Кроме того, было пересмотрено само понятие развития, и прицел политики в этой области был смещен в сторону хорошего управления, прозрачности, подотчетности и прав человека. В результате, инициативы, направленные на улучшение здоровья, образования и гендерного равенства заменили крупномасштабные строительные проекты.

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