Paul Lachine

Privatizar a Ajuda ao Desenvolvimento

LONDRES – A ajuda pública ao desenvolvimento (APD) modificou-se bastante durante os últimos 50 anos. Desde a sua origem durante a Guerra Fria, quando membros do Comité de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento da OCDE gastavam anualmente cerca de 60 mil milhões de dólares (um montante certamente igualado pela União Soviética), já se apelidaram os países receptores de “atrasados”, “em vias de desenvolvimento”, “sulistas,” e, ultimamente, “emergentes.”

Na verdade, em anos recentes, a definição de país receptor tem sido cada vez mais questionada. No Reino Unido discute-se a descontinuação da ajuda à Índia, o terceiro maior beneficiário mundial de fluxos de capital, e sede do maior empregador industrial do Reino Unido, o Grupo Tata. Do mesmo modo, os países da zona euro voltam-se agora para a China, um país tradicionalmente receptor e que detém 2,5 biliões de dólares da dívida pública dos EUA, para os ajudar a ultrapassar o seu próprio endividamento.

Além disso, o próprio conceito de desenvolvimento foi redefinido, com uma reorientação da ênfase política no sentido da boa governação, da transparência, da responsabilização, e dos direitos humanos. Como resultado, iniciativas apontadas à melhoria da saúde, da educação, e da igualdade de género substituíram projectos de construção de grande envergadura.

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