Bombes, livres et dollars

L’allocation « supplémentaire d’urgence » de 82 milliards USD devant servir à financer les opérations militaires en Irak et en Afghanistan entraîne les États-Unis à dépenser plus de fonds dans le domaine militaire qu’il n’en faut sur une base annuelle pour permettre à chaque enfant au monde de recevoir, sur dix ans, une éducation primaire et secondaire. Bien sûr, il n’est pas question ici de savoir si l’éducation universelle est abordable financièrement, mais plutôt si l’Amérique et le monde peuvent se permettre de négliger les avantages politiques, économiques, sociaux et médicaux qu’apporte l’éducation des 380 millions d’enfants qui, sur la terre entière, ne sont actuellement pas scolarisés.

L’éducation, tout autant que la puissance militaire, est un impératif de sécurité, car elle aide le monde – les individus et les sociétés – à échapper aux conséquences de la pauvreté endémique, de la croissance démographique rapide, des problèmes de l’environnement et des injustices sociales. L’éducation renforce le capital social et culturel, ce qui contribue ensuite à des États forts et stables. Elle améliore la santé des hommes, augmente l’espérance de vie et réduit les taux de fécondité.

Hormis ces avantages évidents, l’éducation est également une obligation humanitaire généralement bien acceptée et un Droit de l’homme de compétence internationale.

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