Искушение боливийских популистов

В апреле 2002 года многолюдные демонстрации, известные как "водная война", заставили Президента Боливии Уго Бансера расторгнуть договор с единственной международной корпорацией, заинтересованной в реализации самого крупного проекта страны. Недавно еще одни народные волнения остановили проект по экспорту природного газа в Мексику и США через морской порт в Чили.

Зачинщики "газовой войны" использовали ее для свержения Президента Санчеса де Лосады и остановки процессов модернизации страны - усиления институтов, открытия рынков и интеграции Боливии в мировую экономику. Эти так называемые "войны" - часть того же конфликта, что вызвал бунты крестьян в сентябре 2002 года, протесты крестьян, занимающихся выращиванием коки, направленные против уничтожения посадок этого растения в целях борьбы с торговлей кокаином, а также отзыв в начале нынешнего года прогрессивной налоговой реформы.

По существу, всё это, - один непрерывный конфликт между демократией и популизмом, оставляющий будущее Боливии между двух огней. Стороны потеряли доверие друг к другу, а социальные войны вытеснили политический прогресс. При непрекращающемся росте напряжённости и недоверия в обществе политики и общественные деятели Боливии остаются в шоке, боясь столкновений с массами. В свою очередь популисты могут поднять массы, но не могут предложить альтернативу. Они жалеют о прошлом и боятся глобализации.

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