Bolivijská krize, latinskoamerické selhání

Bolívie není podle žádných měřítek typickou latinskoamerickou zemí. S výjimkou Haiti je to nejchudší stát na západní polokouli a co do stability je na tom ještě hůře, neboť se zde od získání nezávislosti odehrály více než dvě stovky převratů.

V regionu se silnou domorodou minulostí, ale roztroušenou a izolovanou přítomností je Bolívie spolu s Guatemalou zřejmě jedinou latinskoamerickou zemí, kde domorodé národy tvoří většinu obyvatelstva. Její topografie a etnické rozvrstvení dává vzniknout autonomistickým, a dokonce i odtrženeckým silám, které ohrožují národní jednotu hrozivěji než kdekoliv jinde. A samozřejmě je Bolívie spolu s Paraguayí na tomto subkontinentu také jediným státem, který nemá moře.

Bylo by tedy značně nemoudré vztahovat současnou bolivijskou krizi na zbytek Latinské Ameriky. Zevšeobecňovat je až příliš snadné: jinde jsou instituce mnohem silnější, chudoba – a zejména extrémní chudoba – se snižuje a bitva o přírodní zdroje již byla do značné míry urovnána. Dokonce i na místech, jako je Venezuela, která má obrovské zásoby ropy a tradičně založenou nacionalistickou vládu, přežilo status quo umožňující zahraniční investice do energetických zdrojů téměř osm let vládnutí prezidenta Huga Cháveze.

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