玻利维亚危机:拉丁美洲的失败

无论从哪种定义来说,玻利维亚不是一个典型的拉丁美洲国家。但是,海地却是西半球最贫穷的国家,自从独立以来它已经经历过两百多次政变,局势甚至比玻利维亚更不稳定。

在一个拥有辉煌的本土历史但现在却四分五裂的孤立地区,紧靠危地马拉的玻利维亚也许是拉丁美洲唯一一个当地土著民族占人口多数的国家。它的地形特征和民族分布产生了自治论者,甚至产生了使用比其他任何地方都险恶的方式威胁国家统一的分裂主义者。并且无疑,它和巴拉圭一样,是唯一一个在次大陆上的内陆国家。

所以,根据玻利维亚目前的危机来对拉丁美洲其余地方做出推论是草率之举。要给出一个概括远非这么简单:其他地方的制度要有力的多,贫困——尤其是极端贫困——已经被消灭,对自然资源的争夺战也已经被大部分平息。即使是在像委内瑞拉这样一个具有巨大石油储备和传统风格的民族主义政府的地方,允许外国投资能源的现状在总统乌戈·查韦斯的统治下维持了八年。

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