尼日利亚动乱因贫困而起

拉各斯—最近,尼日利亚安全部队夷平了一座北部渔村,近200人丧命,2000间屋子被毁,而这只是为了根除一小撮伊斯兰极端派系博科圣地(Boko Haram)分子。此次袭击凸显出过去四年来军方因为极端主义者的多次袭击而恼羞成怒。尽管尼日利亚总统乔纳森(Goodluck Jonathan)He联合国秘书长潘基文谴责军方的重拳出击方式,但这绝非与极端主义者的对峙造成严重附带伤害——也几乎肯定不会是最后一次。

博科圣地的主要目标是迫使尼日利亚接受伊斯兰教法,自2009年因军方处决其领袖尤素夫(Mohammed Yusuf)而向政府宣战以来,该组织表现出极强的韧性。博科圣地采用打一枪换一地的游击战术和自杀式人肉炸弹袭击过警局、政府大楼和教堂,造成数千人丧生。尽管军方特种部队与博科圣地在博尔诺州和约贝州发生过暴力交火,但博科圣地在其活动活跃的北方各州仍然相当强健。

以穆斯林为多数人口的北方的政治敏感型迫使作为南方基督徒的乔纳森不得不小心翼翼地试图遏制博科圣地。许多北方人怨恨总统宝座在仅仅一个任期之后又回到了南方人手中(一项不成文的约定规定总统应该每隔两届由南方和北方轮流坐庄)。

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