Das Problem mit der universalen Schulausbildung

KOPENHAGEN – Während die Frist für die Millennium-Entwicklungsziele der Vereinten Nationen schnell näher rückt, beeilt sich die Welt, für die nächsten fünfzehn Jahre neue Ziele aufzustellen. Angesichts begrenzter Ressourcen müssen sich Politiker und internationale Organisationen fragen: Wo können wir am meisten Gutes bewirken? Soll ein größerer Anteil der 2,5 Billionen US-Dollar, die in dieser Zeit an Entwicklungshilfe und Eigenmittel der Entwicklungsländer zur Verfügung stehen, für Gesundheit, die Umwelt, Nahrungsmittel oder lieber Schulausbildung eingesetzt werden?

Mit diesen Fragen im Hinterkopf bat der Copenhagen Consensus (unter meiner Leitung) einige der weltweit führenden Ökonomen, das wirtschaftliche, soziale und umweltpolitische Kosten-Nutzen-Verhältnis vieler unterschiedlicher Ziele einzuschätzen. Unter den zu bewertenden Zielen befand sich auch das Ziel der Schulausbildung für alle.

Die Wichtigkeit von schulischer Ausbildung ist unumstritten. Das Problem ist, dass die Glaubwürdigkeit der internationalen Gemeinschaft bezüglich ihrer Versprechen, universale Ausbildung zu gewährleisten, stark gelitten hat: Seit 1950 hat sie in mindestens zwölf durch die UN geförderten Erklärungen versprochen, dieses Ziel zu erreichen. So versprach 1961 die UNESCO, dass bis 1980 die Grundschulausbildung in Afrika „universal, verpflichtend und kostenlos“ sein würde. Als diese Zeit dann kam, besuchten etwa die Hälfte aller afrikanischen Kinder im Grundschulalter immer noch keine Schule.

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