Past klimatické politiky

ŘÍM – Dnešní politika boje proti klimatickým změnám stojí mnohem více, než je hodnota jejího přínosu. Špatná politická rozhodnutí bohužel často činí tuto politiku ještě méně efektivní.

Vezměme si například politiku 20-20 Evropské unie, jejímž cílem je dvacetiprocentní snížení emisí CO2 oproti úrovni z roku 1990 do roku 2020. Zabývat se tímto přístupem je důležité nejen proto, že EU provádí nejrozsáhlejší a nejambicióznější klimatickou politiku na světě, ale i proto, že klimatické politiky jinde často trpí podobnými nešvary.

Cenově nejefektivnějším způsobem, jak dosáhnout dvacetiprocentního cíle, by bylo provozovat jediný trh s emisemi uhlíku na úrovni celé EU, což by unii stálo do roku 2020 zhruba 96 miliard dolarů ročně. Přínos pro celý svět by však byl mnohem nižší. Podle odhadu jediného peer-review posouzení klimatické politiky EU, které je k dispozici, může unie díky této politice odvrátit klimatické škody v hodnotě asi 10 miliard dolarů ročně. Za každý vynaložený dolar tak EU odvrátí škody v hodnotě zhruba deseti centů.

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