为发展而生的能源

发自堪培拉——取舍是人生固有的一个部分,而我们都从自己的私人预算安排中认识到了这一点。为了翻修屋顶,暑假度假的支出可能不得不减少一点;点了便宜一些的葡萄酒,就可以上一些更昂贵的甜点。

取舍在环境政策中也很普遍:如果在削减某一类污染物上投入较多,那么留给解决其他问题的资源就会相应减少。比如说煤炭造成了惊人的污染,但它也提供了廉价和可靠的电力去推动发展。在过去的30年中,中国主要借助燃煤就使6.8亿人摆脱了贫困。其人均富裕程度也比过去<>增长了13倍有多

与此同时,北京以及中国许多大城市正遭遇着致病的雾霾,让人不禁联想到1950年代的伦敦。每年约有120万中国人因室外空气污染过早死亡。北京的空气测量数据表明,空气污染成分中有超过16%来自煤炭。世界银行估计,中国的年度总空气污染成本——由中国人表示愿意为降低死亡风险而支付的金额计算得出——竟相当于国内生产总值的4%。

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