Старый добрый мир биотехнологий

Скептики говорят о сельскохозяйственных биотехнологиях как о непроверенных, недоказанных, ненатуральных и неконтролируемых. Эти высказывания ничего общего с действительностью не имеют. Напротив, ни биотехнологии, ни генная инженерия не новы, а потребители, правительство, промышленность уже давно и счастливо с ними знакомы.

Ранние биотехнологии -- приложение биосистем к тем или иным технологическим процессам -- датируется 6000 до н.э. когда вавилоняне начали использовать особые микроорганизмы для ферментации в производстве алкогольных напитков. Генная инженерия может быть датирована с того момента, когда человек догадался,что животные и растения могут быть отобраны и выращены с целью улучшения характеристик. Первые биологи и агрономы продолжали селекцию, добиваясь желаемых качеств, генерируя плохо понимаемые изменения в генетическом материале.

Другими словами, природа не наградила нас бескосточковым виноградом, танжело (гибрид танжерина и грейпфрута ) и устойчивой к плесени клубникой - все это достижения фермеров и агрономов. В последнюю половину века новые достижения в области генетики на молекулярном уровне добавились к уже существующим знаниям о генном преобразовании разного рода организмов.

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