Революция и реакции в сфере биофарминга

СТЭНФОРД – Добывать лечащие средства от растений – идея не новая. Аспирин был впервые выделен из коры ивы в восемнадцатом веке. А многие другие популярные фармацевтические препараты, в том числе морфин, кодеин и пищевая добавка волокна Metamucil, создаются с помощью растений со всего мира.

Совсем недавно ученые разработали методы, которые далее развивают этот старинный процесс с помощью генной инженерии для того, чтобы заставить сельскохозяйственные культуры начать синтезировать фармацевтические препараты высокого качества. Эта технология известна как «биофарминг» (от английского biopharming, который сочетает как сельскохозяйственный «фэрминг», так и фармацевтику) и ее великий потенциал обнаружили еще 15 лет назад, путем клинических испытаний вакцин и лекарств на бананах, помидорах и табаке. К сожалению, прогресс застопорился от того, что регуляторам не захотелось брать на себя дополнительные риски.

Одним из первых примеров биофарминга был урожай риса от биотехнологической компании Ventria Bioscience, который содержал два человеческих белка: лактоферрин и лизоцим. После того, как рис был выращен и собран, его ядро обрабатывалось для извлечения и очистки белков, чтобы далее их использовать в лекарствах устной регидратации для лечения диареи, которая уступает только болезням органов дыхания в качестве ведущего инфекционного убийцы детей в возрасте до пяти лет в развивающихся странах.

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