Keamanan Energi dari Sumber Energi Lokal untuk Eropa

COPENHAGEN – Uni Eropa (UE) sangat tergantung pada minyak asing. Setiap 100 liter minyak yang dikonsumsi di Eropa, 90 liter diantaranya berasal dari impor. Sementara itu, produksi minyak dalam negeri merosot jauh, turun lebih dari 50% selama sepuluh tahun terakhir. Apabila UE tidak melakukan perubahan dan menambah produksi energi alternatif – termasuk biofuel, salah satu pilihan yang sudah lama diabaikan UE – sekitar 95% minyak yang dikonsumsi pada tahun 2030 akan diperoleh dari sumber-sumber asing, menurut Badan Energi Internasional (IEA).

Kondisi terkini tetap menjadi kelemahan bagi UE sebab ini menunjukkan ketergantungan pada impor dari rezim-rezim yang tidak stabil dan otoriter. Pada tahun 2014, negara-negara anggota UE mengeluarkan dana yang luar biasa besar yakni €271 miliar pada minyak mentah asing – jumlah ini melebih PDB gabungan Bulgaria, Hongaria, Slovakia, dan Slovenia. Sekitar setengah dari uang ini mengalir ke Rusia, Timur Tengah, dan Afrika Utara.

Dengan demikian, tidak hanya UE rentan terpengaruh gangguan pasokan global, tapi UE juga menyokong pemerintah otoriter dan menguatkan rezim-rezim bermusuhan (hostile), yang membatasi kemampuannya sendiri untuk memberikan respon yang efektif dan terkoordinasi melawan ancaman dan provokasi. Perjuangan UE untuk merancang strategi-strategi politik dan ekonomi yang koheren demi menjawab tantangan-tantangan yang timbul akibat agresi Rusia di Ukraina dan gejolak di Timur Tengah tepat sekali menggambarkan kondisi yang ada.

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