Sugarcane

Une sécurité énergétique « maison » pour l'Europe

COPENHAGUE – L'Union européenne est fortement tributaire du pétrole étranger. Sur 100 litres consommés au sein de l'UE, 90 sont importés. Parallèlement, la production européenne de pétrole a connu une forte baisse, de plus de 50% sur la dernière décennie. À moins que l'UE ne change de cap et qu'elle n'augmente sa production d'énergies alternatives (notamment en biocarburants, une option longtemps négligée par l'UE), près de 95% de son pétrole proviendra de sources étrangères d'ici 2030, selon l'Agence internationale de l'énergie.

L'état actuel des choses reste le talon d'Achille de l'UE : il implique une dépendance vis à vis des importations de la part de régimes autoritaires instables. En 2014, les États membres de l'UE ont dépensé la somme stupéfiante de 271 milliards d'euros en pétrole brut étranger, soit plus que le PIB cumulé de la Bulgarie, de la Hongrie, de la Slovaquie et de la Slovénie. Près de la moitié de cette somme a bénéficié à la Russie, au Moyen-Orient et à l'Afrique du Nord.

Ainsi non seulement l'UE est exposée à des perturbations des approvisionnements mondiaux, mais elle contribue également à soutenir des gouvernements autoritaires et l'autonomisation de régimes hostiles, ce qui limite sa propre capacité à fournir des réponses efficaces et coordonnées aux menaces et aux provocations. La lutte de l'UE dans la conception de stratégies politiques et économiques cohérentes pour affronter les défis posés par l'agression russe en Ukraine et par l'enfer au Moyen-Orient est un cas d'espèce.

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