Thos Robinson/Getty Images for Weill Cornell Medicine

打击耐药性的伦理学

哥德堡—2014年,世界卫生组织报告,耐药性——特别是抗生素耐药性——正在日益成为人类健康、食品安全和“现代医学成就”的威胁。这绝不是“末日幻想,”世卫组织说,反之,后抗生素时代“是二十一世纪的一个非常切实的可能。”

耐药性威胁着越来越多传染病的有效治疗——如细菌感染到病毒和真菌性疾病。当人们乱用抗生素来治疗普通感冒时,当农民用抗生素来提高牲畜产量时,当制药公司将抗生素排入环境来降低生产成本时,本来应该被药品杀死的细菌就会获得免疫力。抗生素被使用和排放得越多,耐药性就发展得越快,导致产生“超级病菌”,威胁人类健康——既提高了大面积致死传染病的风险,也让外科手术和癌症治疗等依靠有效抗生素的医疗服务效果打折。

这一令人恐怖的现实令卫生专家束手无策。平心而论,对于耐药性危机有一些解决办法:限制抗生素使用、改善诊断和疾病监控、加强新药的临床开发就是其中之三。一些初步的协调行动也已经被纳入世卫组织全球行动计划。但每一种办法都存在伦理因素,而在世卫组织的评估报告做出四年之后,解决这一医学紧急情况的伦理路线图仍然模糊不清,这非常危险。

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