Bin Laden y la retirada de Afganistán

ISLAMABAD - La muerte de Osama Bin Laden en un tiroteo con las fuerzas especiales estadounidenses afectará profundamente las relaciones de Pakistán con Estados Unidos. La muerte del líder de Al Qaeda muy al interior del país, en una ciudad con fuerte presencia militar, parece confirmar lo que muchos han afirmado desde hace tiempo: Pakistán, no Afganistán, se ha convertido en el epicentro del terrorismo internacional.

¿Cómo afectará la muerte de Bin Laden a los grupos terroristas que operan no solo en Pakistán, sino también en otros países musulmanes en todo el mundo? ¿Qué impacto tendrá sobre el involucramiento de Estados Unidos en Afganistán? Hoy es posible ofrecer algunas respuestas tentativas a estas preguntas.

Estados Unidos fue a Afganistán en octubre de 2001 para derrocar al régimen talibán, que había proporcionado a Bin Laden y Al Qaeda un refugio y base de operaciones. EE.UU. ha permanecido allí durante casi diez años, combatiendo una insurgencia que se concentra en la población pastún de Afganistán. Los pastunes, que constituyen aproximadamente la mitad de la población de Afganistán, creen que la invasión de EE.UU. significó una pérdida de poder frente a sus rivales étnicos, los tayikos y uzbekos. La insurgencia liderada por los pastunes tiene como objetivo expulsar a las tropas extranjeras y restablecer la dominación pastún.

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