A close up shot of a man smoking a cigarette Yasser Al-Zayyat/Getty Images

揭露大型烟草企业

波士顿——最近,烟草行业不尊重民众生命、国际法和国家主权的问题已经被放到了聚光灯下。 世界卫生组织(WHO)和卫报等机构所开展的调查已经找到了我们公共卫生界几十年来一直知晓的大量证据:那就是大型烟草公司为不断追求利润,正在想尽一切办法颠覆、阻挠和削弱公共卫生保护。

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调查结果显示,像菲利普莫里斯国际和英美烟草公司这样的大型烟草企业常常采用秘密策略、毫不掩饰的欺凌乃至借助非法活动来阻止世界卫生组织在2003年制定的烟草控制框架公约(FCTC)在执行领域所取得的进步。现在,英国严重欺诈办公室(SFO)已经证实其正在对英美烟草公司展开调查,调查该公司在中非和北非的阴谋贿赂活动。

这仅仅是个开始。但鉴于烟草业利益与公共卫生目标之间的根本性矛盾,世界各国的卫生从业人员和政府必须采取更多措施,防止大型烟草企业干预官方政策。事实上,他们必须在政策制定以及国内国际烟草业利益之间树立起一道无法攻破的防火墙。

上述理念就反映在烟草控制框架公约第五条第三款当中。通过由美国四大烟草公司和1998年美国46个州总检察官所达成的《烟草大和解协议》所泄露出来的烟草行业内部文件明确显示了制定相关条款完全必要。那些文件显示菲利普莫里斯公司(当时是菲利普莫里斯国际的母公司)将世界卫生组织视为威胁,并竭尽所能寻求促使其“遏制/抵消/改变方向”的反制举措。

近期的调查结果显示菲利普莫里斯国际针对全球烟草条约会议、讨好会议代表并招募大量对烟草行业友好的贸易部长进入代表团队伍。英美烟草公司则瞄准国家立法机构,据称曾贿赂东非某些国家官员以求阻止或颠覆公共政策并强行进入市场,目的是让新一代非洲人成为其产品的上瘾者。

所有这一切导致在世界各地推行挽救生命的公共卫生保护措施进展缓慢——尽管烟草公司未能彻底阻止这些进展的取得。数十个国家的政府已经开始落实与全球烟草公约利益冲突条款相一致的举措。举例来讲,挪威已将超过20亿美元的投资从烟草行业中撤出。而欧盟已经终止了与菲利普莫里斯国际就处理非法贸易问题所签署的争议性协议。而菲律宾则禁止公职人员与烟草业人士打交道,除非情况绝对必要。

通过这些措施,政府正在将民众健康置于烟草业的利润之上。归根结底,如果不允许大型烟草企业参与政策制定,那么政府在执行降低吸烟率的措施方面取得成功的可能性就更高。这些措施包括已经经过事实检验的禁止烟草营销政策,此外还包括去掉香烟包装上的品牌标识等一些新举措。总而言之,成百上千万人的生命正在因为这些措施而得到挽救。

更多国家必须紧急实施类似的政策。要想实现这一目标,它们必须确保落实与第五条第三款相一致的政策和程序,从而防止烟草业颠覆旨在降低吸烟率和改善公共健康的举措。

但大型烟草公司并非为保护自身利益而试图破坏公共利益的唯一一个个案。因此我们还必须针对其他行业制定像烟草控制框架公约这样的国际法律框架,这些行业正在利用和大型烟草公司同样的手段来削弱影响其自身行业利益的公共健康立法和环境规则。

好消息是公众不仅对大型烟草企业、而且对其他类似强势行业利用这种手段的警惕性也越来越高。在最近召开的一次联合国气候变化框架公约会议上,化石燃料企业对会谈的干预成为人们关注的核心议题。

现在,阻止诸如大型石油、大型制药和大型食品企业破坏、稀释或延缓执行促进公共利益的良性政策的公众呼声也越来越高。近期严重欺诈办公室的调查和媒体的曝光应当可以强化这种态势,有力地推进政府在国际和国内烟草和其他行业领域落实更加强势的利益冲突举措。

今天,从烟草、制药行业到那些参与水资源私有化和气候变化的强势企业一心一意地以牺牲人们的生命安全和环境为代价来牟取利润。他们几乎毫不顾及民主进程,而且,我们现在知道,他们将冲破一切阻碍破坏可能干扰其日常运营的任何流程。阻止他们这样做的唯一方法就是将他们踢出谈判桌。我们有办法做到这一点。我们只需要很好地加以利用。

翻译:Xu Binbin

http://prosyn.org/dbAcGjr/zh;

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