Jenseits der revolutionären Ernüchterung

Alle Revolutionen gehen letzten Endes von Euphorie in Ernüchterung über. In einer revolutionären Atmosphäre der Solidarität und Selbstaufopferung neigen die Menschen dazu, zu denken, dass nach ihrem Sieg unweigerlich das Paradies auf Erden käme. Selbstverständlich kommt das Paradies niemals, und – natürlich – folgt Enttäuschung. Das scheint derzeit in der Ukraine der Fall zu sein, wo sich die Bevölkerung kaum mehr als ein Jahr nach ihrer erfolgreichen Orangenen Revolution auf die Wahl eines neuen Parlaments vorbereitet.

Die postrevolutionäre Ernüchterung, besonders nach den Revolutionen gegen den Kommunismus – und im Falle der Ukraine nach der Revolution gegen den Postkommunismus –, ist in der Psychologie verwurzelt. Neue Umstände haben den meisten Menschen neue Herausforderungen auferlegt. Früher entschied der Staat alles, und viele Menschen, besonders in der mittleren und älteren Generation, fingen an, die Freiheit als eine Last anzusehen, weil sie ständig Entscheidungen forderte.

Ich habe diese psychologische Irritation manchmal mit meiner eigenen Situation nach der Entlassung aus dem Gefängnis verglichen: Jahrelang hatte ich mich nach der Freiheit gesehnt, doch als ich endlich entlassen wurde, musste ich andauernd Entscheidungen treffen. Wenn man plötzlich jeden Tag mit vielen Optionen konfrontiert wird, bekommt man Kopfschmerzen und möchte manchmal unbewusst ins Gefängnis zurück.

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