Atención con el proteccionismo hacia la inversión extranjera directa

NUEVA YORK – Durante sus reuniones más recientes, el G-8 adoptó una postura contundente en contra de las medidas proteccionistas en el sector de la inversión extranjera directa (IED), haciéndose eco de los pedidos de una moratoria para este tipo de medidas pronunciados anteriormente por el G-20. Ambos tenían razón de hacerlo.

Según la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo, sólo el 6% de todos los cambios en las regulaciones nacionales de IED en todo el mundo entre 1992 y 2002 apuntaban a que el clima de inversión fuera menos acogedor. Esa cifra se duplicó al 12% de todos los cambios regulatorios de 2003-2004 y casi se volvió a duplicar, al 21% de todos los cambios regulatorios de la IED, en 2005-2007. En América Latina, por ejemplo, alrededor del 60% de todos los cambios regulatorios de IED fueron desfavorables a los inversores extranjeros.

En términos generales, los países que habían implementado al menos un cambio regulatorio que hiciera que el marco de inversión fuera menos acogedor en 2006-2007 representaban aproximadamente el 40% de los influjos mundiales de IED durante ese período -una cifra llamativa que demuestra que algo muy sospechoso está en marcha-. Y estos datos se refieren a cambios formales en leyes y regulaciones; no hay datos disponibles respecto de hasta qué punto se implementan leyes y regulaciones inalteradas de una manera más restrictiva, incrementando las barreras informales al ingreso y operaciones de firmas extranjeras.

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