Vorsicht vor FDI-Protektionismus

NEW YORK – Auf ihren letzten Treffen sprachen sich die G-8 vehement gegen protektionistische Maßnahmen im Bereich der ausländischen Direktinvestitionen (FDI) aus und ließen damit die Rufe nach einem Moratorium für derartige Maßnahmen widerhallen, das die G-20 zuvor beschlossen hatten. Beide taten recht daran.

Laut der Konferenz der Vereinten Nationen für Handel und Entwicklung gingen nur 6 % aller Änderungen der nationalen FDI-Bestimmungen auf der Welt zwischen 1992 und 2002 in die Richtung, das Investitionsklima weniger einladend zu gestalten. Diese Zahl hat sich 2003 bis 2004 auf 12 % aller gesetzlichen Änderungen verdoppelt und 2005 bis 2007 auf 21 % aller gesetzlichen Änderungen zu FDI wieder nahezu verdoppelt. In Lateinamerika beispielsweise waren 2007 etwa 60 % aller gesetzlichen Änderungen zu FDI unvorteilhaft für ausländische Investoren.

Insgesamt entfielen rund 40 % der weltweiten FDI-Zuflüsse 2006 bis 2007 auf Länder, die mindestens eine gesetzliche Änderung erlassen hatten, die die Rahmenbedingungen für Investitionen in dieser Zeit weniger einladend machte – eine eindrucksvolle Zahl, die zeigt, dass etwas sehr Fragwürdiges seinen Lauf nimmt. Zudem beziehen sich diese Daten auf offizielle Änderungen an Gesetzen und Bestimmungen; keine Daten sind für den Umfang verfügbar, in dem ungeänderte Gesetze und Bestimmungen restriktiver angewandt werden und dadurch die inoffiziellen Barrieren für den Einlass und Betrieb ausländischer Unternehmen heraufsetzen.

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