Entre la Pax Americana y la Pax Africana

La guerra y la paz existen en Africa por razones que no siempre son propias del continente. Los conflictos en otros lugares del mundo frecuentemente tienen enormes repercusiones en Africa. En noviembre de 2002, en el atentado terrorista en contra del Paradise, un hotel israelí en Mombasa, mi ciudad natal, murieron cuatro veces más kenianos que israelíes. ¿Acaso fue este simplemente otro momento de convergencia sangrienta entre la política del Medio Oriente y la política del Islam en Africa?

Aquí debemos hacer una distinción entre el terrorismo nacional y el internacional. Gran parte del terrorismo en Africa durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX se dirigió en contra de las potencias coloniales y de los regímenes minoritarios europeos que fueron su legado. Kenia, por ejemplo, ganó su independencia gracias en parte a una guerra de liberación anticolonialista en la que tanto las fuerzas coloniales británicas como el movimiento Mau Mau recurrieron al terrorismo.

En retrospectiva, el terrorismo "nacional" en Africa fue una forma de hacer la guerra que debe juzgarse dentro de su contexto político y moral, y por sus resultados finales. La guerra Mau Mau de Kenya llevó a la independencia en 1963; la revolución argelina liberó ese país en 1962; las guerras anticolonialistas en Angloa, Mozambique y Guinea-Bissau destruyeron el imperio portugués en 1974; la lucha anti UDI en Rodesia (Zimbabwe) acabó con el gobierno de los blancos; y la lucha en contra del apartheid en Sudáfrica finalmente triunfó ante ese orden racial.

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