Zwischen Pax Americana und Pax Africana

In Afrika kommt es zu Krieg und Frieden aus Gründen, die ihren Ursprung nicht immer in Afrika haben. Konflikte in anderen Teilen der Welt haben oft überall in Afrika gewaltige Auswirkungen. Viermal mehr Kenianer als Israelis starben im November 2002 beim Angriff von Terroristen auf das Paradies, ein israelisches Hotel in meiner Heimatstadt Mombasa. War dies nur ein weiterer Moment in dem bluttriefenden Zusammenspiel zwischen der Politik im Nahen Osten und der Politik des Islam in Afrika?

Wir müssen hierbei zwischen dem nationalen und internationalen Terrorismus unterscheiden. Ein Großteil des Terrorismus in Afrika richtete sich in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts gegen die Kolonialmächte und die Regime europäischer Minderheiten, die ihr Erbe angetreten hatten. Kenia, zum Beispiel, hat seine Unabhängigkeit teilweise durch einen antikolonialen Freiheitskrieg gewonnen, in dem beide Seiten, die Britische Kolonialmacht und die Mau Mau Bewegung zum Terrorismus gegriffen haben.

Im Rückblick ist der "nationale" Terrorismus in Afrika eine Kriegsform, die in ihrem politischen und moralischen Umfeld und von ihrem endgültigen Ergebnis her beurteilt werden muss. Der Krieg der Mau Mau in Kenia führte 1963 zur Unabhängigkeit, die algerische Revolution befreite ihr Land 1962; die Kriege gegen die Kolonialherren in Angola, Mosambik, und Guinea-Bissau zerstörten 1974 das portugiesische Reich; der Kampf gegen die UDI in Rhodesien (Simbabwe) beendete die Herrschaft der Weißen; und die Auseinandersetzung mit der Apartheid in Südafrika setzte sich schließlich gegen die rassistische Apartheidordnung durch.

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