Entre Pax Americana et Pax Africana

La guerre et la paix coexistent en Afrique pour des raisons qui ne sont pas toujours propres à l'Afrique. Les conflits qui se tiennent dans d'autres régions du monde ont souvent de vastes répercussions en Afrique. Quatre fois plus de Kenyans que d'Israéliens sont morts en novembre 2002 lors de l'attaque terroriste du Paradise, un hôtel israélien de ma ville natale, Mombasa. N'était-ce qu'une autre manifestation d'une convergence tachée de sang entre la politique du Moyen-Orient et la politique de l'Islam en Afrique ?

Nous devons distinguer ici le terrorisme national du terrorisme international. Le terrorisme en Afrique dans la seconde moitié du 20 e siècle visait principalement les puissances coloniales et les régimes minoritaires européens qui en découlaient. Par exemple, le Kenya a partiellement obtenu son indépendance au cours d'une guerre anti-coloniale pour la libération au cours de laquelle les forces coloniales britanniques et le mouvement Mau Mau ont eu recours au terrorisme.

Rétrospectivement, le terrorisme « national » en Afrique s'apparentait à une forme de guerre qui devait être considérée dans son contexte politique et moral et par ses conséquences. La guerre Mau Mau du Kenya a permis d'obtenir l'indépendance du pays en 1963 ; la révolution algérienne a libéré ce pays en 1962 ; les guerres anti-coloniales menées en Angola, au Mozambique et en Guinée-Bissau ont détruit l'empire portugais en 1974 ; la lutte anti-UDI en Rhodésie, au Zimbabwe, a mis fin au règne des Blancs ; et la lutte anti-apartheid en Afrique du Sud a finalement triomphé de l'ordre racial instauré par l'apartheid.

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