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Las mejores formas de luchar contra la extrema pobreza

COPENHAGUE – En 1950, los habitantes de Corea del Sur y Pakistán ganaban aproximadamente lo mismo al año. En la actualidad, esos dos países son poco comparables: desde entonces, el ingreso per cápita surcoreano se multiplicó por 23, mientras que el paquistaní solo se triplicó.

Cómo ayudar a que una mayor cantidad de los países más pobres del mundo imite el éxito surcoreano es una de las preguntas más importantes que el mundo debe responder hoy día. Mejorar su situación económica implica la posibilidad de empoderar a poblaciones completas con mejor salud, más educación, mayores expectativas de vida y menor vulnerabilidad frente a desafíos como los que plantean los desastres naturales.

Muchos de los 169 Objetivos de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para los próximos 15 años están, en forma intrínseca, relacionados con la reducción de la pobreza. Pero no todos los objetivos son igualmente buenos. El Copenhagen Consensus Center, que dirijo, pidió hace poco a 60 equipos de economistas que evaluaran los costos y beneficios de estos objetivos propuestos, que entrarán en vigencia en septiembre para reemplazar a los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio.

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