Una nuova prospettiva per il futuro urbanistico della Cina

PECHINO – Circa 100 milioni di cinesi vivono in condizioni di povertà estrema, mentre 275 milioni spendono meno di 2 dollari al giorno. La stragrande maggioranza dei poveri in Cina vive nelle aree rurali, mentre, per la maggior parte, la speranza di una vita migliore risiede nelle città dove è più facile trovare posti di lavoro con uno stipendio migliore. Negli ultimi trent’anni, mezzo miliardo di cinesi si è già trasferito nelle città aumentando la percentuale urbana della popolazione da meno del 20% registrato nel 1980 a circa il 50%. Secondo le stime, entro il 2030, il 70% dei cinesi vivrà nelle città.

Il processo di urbanizzazione della Cina ha senza dubbio sostenuto la crescita sorprendente del paese e la sua trasformazione economica. Le sue città hanno fornito terreni a buon prezzo e una consistente forza lavoro, mentre le amministrazioni locali si sono impegnate ad attirare gli investimenti e a creare posti di lavoro.

Tuttavia, iniziano ad emergere delle difficoltà. Il modello di crescita cinese, sostenuto principalmente dagli investimenti e dalle esportazioni, si sta esaurendo. L’espansione urbana e la congestione stanno aumentando creando tensioni tra gli agricoltori che non si sentono compensati in modo adeguato per la perdita del proprio terreno; una fonte essenziale del debito delle amministrazioni locali (che è ora pari al 30% del PIL).

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