Ein neues Kalifat?

PRINCETON – Die militante Gruppierung Islamischer Staat im Irak und in Syrien (ISIS) hat unlängst ein Kalifat ausgerufen und damit für ein in der heutigen Zeit beispielloses Ereignis gesorgt. Unabhängig davon wie es ausgeht, ist eines klar: Gewalttätiger Dschihadismus ist heute zum festen Bestandteil der politischen Landschaft der arabischen Welt geworden.

Seit der Abschaffung des Osmanischen Kalifats in der Republik Türkei im Jahr 1924 hat keine islamische Gruppierung, die Gebiete unter ihrer Kontrolle hat, etwas Derartiges angestrebt. Sogar al-Qaida und die Taliban haben ihre Forderungen auf die Schaffung von Kleinstaaten (Emiraten) beschränkt, in der Hoffnung, dass diese letzten Endes zu einem Kalifat zusammenwachsen.

Dieses Zögern last sich zumindest teilweise durch die Tatsache erklären, dass weder Osama bin Laden, noch Mullah Omar (der Anführer der Taliban) die notwendigen Voraussetzungen erfüllen, um den Titel eines Kalifen zu führen, darunter die nachweisliche Abstammung von den Quraisch, dem Stamm des Propheten Mohammed. Der Emir des Islamischen Staates Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, der neuerdings Anspruch auf den Titel erhebt, erfüllt diese Bedingung.

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