Un nouveau califat ?

PRINCETON – La récente proclamation d'un califat par les activistes de l'Etat islamique en Irak et au Levant (EIIL) est un évènement sans précédent dans l'Histoire moderne. Quelle que soit la manière dont évoluera la situation, une chose est sûre : le jihadisme violent est désormais ancré dans le monde arabe.

Jamais depuis l'abolition du califat ottoman par la République turque en 1924, un groupe musulman contrôlant un territoire donné ne s'y était risqué. Même Al Qaïda et les talibans ont limité leurs demandes à la création d'émirats susceptibles d'évoluer vers un califat.

Cette hésitation s'explique au moins partiellement par le fait qu'Osama Ben Laden ne remplissait pas une condition essentielle pour être calife, et qu'il en est de même du mollah Omar, le dirigeant des talibans : être un descendant de la tribu du prophète Mahomet, les Quraychites, ce qui est le cas d'Abou Bakr Al-Baghdadi.

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