新哈里发帝国?

普林斯顿—军事组织伊拉克和叙利亚伊斯兰国(Islamic State in Iraq and Syria,ISIS)最近宣言要建立一个哈里发帝国,这是现代社会前所未有的事件。不管此事如何发酵,有一点是明确的:暴力圣战主义如今已成为阿拉伯政治版图上根深蒂固的特征。

自1924年土耳其共和国废除奥斯曼哈里发帝国以来,从未有控制领土的穆斯林集团提出如此宏伟的主张。即使是基地组织和塔利班,在建立酋长国方面的要求也不多见,而他们的目标正是最终通过联合诸酋长国建立一个哈里发帝国。

这一犹豫态度至少部分可以用一个事实来解释:不管是本·拉登还是奥马尔(塔利班领袖),都无法满足成为哈里发的条件,因为这必须追溯到先知穆罕默德所在的古莱什(Quraysh)部落。而新的哈里发帝国主张者——ISIS埃米尔巴格达迪(Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi)可以。

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