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1989局部胜利

马德里—1989年11月9日,这是我们这一代人永远不会忘怀的日子,也是一个将永远铭刻在人类历史上的日子。近30年前的这一天,柏林墙倒塌了。苏联阵营的解体说明,共产主义将成为二十世纪第二次意识形态大溃败,第一次是几十年前法西斯主义的灭亡。自由资本主义及其主要倡导者美国成为主宰者,似乎必然将享受长期的、不受挑战的霸权。

许多国家在这个新环境中实现了繁荣。比如,波兰在柏林墙倒塌后不久成立了非共产党领导的政府,在克服了早期的转型问题后,平稳过渡为北约和欧盟成员国。波兰经济上一次整年萎缩发生在1991年。到2009年,其他欧盟成员国GDP纷纷下降的时候,波兰仍增长了近3%

但如今,我们知道1989年并非标志着历史的终结,而只是历史一个篇章的结束。弗朗西斯·福山(Francis Fukuyama)曾预测说,西方自由民主将在1989年获得永恒的霸权,如今它却面临着来自反自由力量的严峻挑战。

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