Berlín, cuna del Asia moderna

NUEVA DELHI – Al marcar el fin de la Guerra Fría y el inminente colapso de la Unión Soviética, la caída del Muro de Berlín hace 20 años transformó la geopolítica global. Pero ningún continente se benefició más que Asia, cuyo dramático crecimiento económico desde 1989 ha ocurrido a una velocidad y a una escala sin paralelo en la historia mundial.

Para Asia, la consecuencia más importante de la caída del Muro de Berlín fue que el colapso del comunismo produjo un giro de la primacía del poder militar al poder económico a la hora de forjar el orden internacional. Con certeza, durante la Revolución Industrial y el período posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial también se produjo un rápido crecimiento económico. Pero en el período post-Guerra Fría, el crecimiento económico por sí mismo ha contribuido a la alteración de las relaciones de poder globales. 

Otro episodio definitorio en 1989 fue la masacre de la Plaza Tiananmen de manifestantes prodemocráticos en Beijing. De no haber sido por el fin de la Guerra Fría, Occidente no habría permitido que China se librase de una situación incómoda por esos asesinatos. Por el contrario, Occidente adoptó una estrategia pragmática, eludiendo las sanciones comerciales y ayudando a integrar a China a la economía global y a las instituciones internacionales mediante la influencia liberadora de la inversión extranjera y el comercio. Si Estados Unidos y sus aliados hubieran perseguido una estrategia centrada en sanciones punitivas, como fue el caso de Cuba y Birmania, el resultado habría sido una China menos próspera, menos abierta y potencialmente desestabilizadora.

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