Der Konkurs kommt nach China

PEKING – Chinas Geschäftsleute haben schon immer Durchhaltevermögen gebraucht, aber nun müssen sie sich an das Schreckgespenst des Konkurses gewöhnen. Denn jetzt hat China ein gepfeffertes Konkursgesetz, und die Gerichte des Landes fangen an, es rigoros durchzusetzen.

Das Konkursrecht in China entstand, direkt nachdem Deng Xiaoping vor drei Jahrzehnten seine marktwirtschaftlichen Reformen startete. Das Gesetz zum Konkurs von Unternehmen (Testdurchführung), das erste seiner Art, wurde 1986 erlassen. Seine Vollstreckung wurde jedoch durch den äußerst begrenzten Anwendungsumfang gehemmt sowie durch das Fehlen entsprechender Gesetze zur Sanierung von Unternehmen, übermäßige staatliche Eingriffe, Unvereinbarkeit mit dem damals geltenden Verfahren beim sogenannten politischen Konkurs, durch technische Fehler und eine allgemeine Unfähigkeit, das Gesetz in die Praxis umzusetzen.

Daher wurde 2006 eine überarbeitete Version des Gesetzes erlassen, die einen wichtigen Meilenstein in Chinas Bemühungen um den Aufbau eines wirksamen Rechtssystems darstellt, während sich das Land auf die Marktwirtschaft zubewegt. Verglichen mit dem ursprünglichen Konkursgesetz, orientiert sich das Gesetz von 2006 eng an den Erfordernissen einer Marktwirtschaft.

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