Mark Carney Andrew Parsons/ZumaPress

Einsichten in die Zentralbanken

LONDON – Im Jahr 1993 veröffentlichten die Ökonomen Alberto Alesina und Larry Summers einen bahnbrechenden Aufsatz mit der These, die Unabhängigkeit der Zentralbanken halte die Inflation in Schach und habe dabei keine negativen Folgen für die Wirtschaftsleistung. Seitdem haben viele Länder in aller Welt ihre Zentralbanken in die Unabhängigkeit entlassen. Keins davon hat einen Rückzieher gemacht, und jeder Hinweis darauf, eine Regierung könne wieder die politische Kontrolle über die Zinssätze übernehmen, wie es kürzlich in Indien geschah, versetzt die Finanzmärkte in Alarmstimmung und die Ökonomen in Wut.

Tatsächlich allerdings gibt es viele Grade von Unabhängigkeit, und nicht alle nominell unabhängigen Zentralbanken arbeiten auf die gleiche Weise. Einige von ihnen, wie die Europäische Zentralbank, setzen ihre eigenen Ziele. Andere, wie die Bank of England (BoE), haben vollständige instrumentale Unabhängigkeit (Kontrolle über die Kurzfristzinssätze), müssen aber ein Inflationsziel der Regierung einhalten.

Auch dabei, wie die Zentralbanken organisiert sind, um ihre Ziele zu erreichen, gibt es Unterschiede. In Neuseeland ist der Gouverneur der Bank der alleinige Entscheidungsträger. Bei der Federal Reserve der USA werden die Entscheidungen durch den Offenmarktausschuss (Federal Open Market Committee, FOMC) getroffen, dessen Mitglieder – sieben Gouverneure und fünf Präsidenten der regionalen Reservebanken der Fed – unterschiedliche Grade von Unabhängigkeit genießen.

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