Bangladesh: Weg in den Talibanstaat

Steuert Bangladesh auf jenes schwarze Loch zu, welches Afghanistan unter den Taliban verschlungen hatte? Dahin gehende Befürchtungen wachsen: Offizielle und fundamentalistische religiöse Kräfte scheinen inzwischen ganz nach eigenem Gutdünken zu agieren– und genießen dabei anscheinend die Unterstützung der örtlichen Polizei, der herrschenden Bangladeshi National Party und der örtlichen Verwaltungen.

Viele Jahre lang bildete Bangladesh in der islamischen Welt eine Ausnahmeerscheinung: Das Land verfolgte einen unabhängigen Kurs in friedlicher, weltlicher und demokratischer Weise. Die die Bevölkerungsmehrheit stellenden Muslime lebten gemäß den Lehren des bengalischen Sufi-Mystizismus traditionell friedlich mit anderen Religionen zusammen, und in der Frage der Bildung und Bürgerrechte von Frauen hatte Bangladesh beachtliche Erfolge aufweisen. Bis vor kurzem genossen die muslimischen Fundamentalisten einen schlechten Ruf, denn Milizen wie „al-Badr“ und „Razakar“ hatten während des Bürgerkriegs von 1971 Gräueltaten an der Zivilbevölkerung begangen.

Im Jahre 2001 jedoch begann sich dies zu ändern: Premierministerin Begum Khaleda Zia, Witwe des einem Attentat zum Opfer gefallenen starken Mannes des Militärs, General Zia, ersetzte damals den Säkularismus in der Verfassung durch die „Souveränität Allahs“. Von dieser Änderung ermuntert, erhob der kleinere Koalitionspartner der BNP, Jamaat-e-Islami – eine noch immer eng mit Pakistan verbundene Partei mit Verbindungen zu den Milizen – die Forderung nach Einführung der Scharia (dem islamischen Gesetz).

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